Wood formation in Norway spruce on a lowland site in Slovenia in 2015 and comparison with other conifers all over Europe
Nastajanje lesa smreke na nižinskem rastišču v Sloveniji v letu 2015 in primerjava z iglavci po Evropi
We present xylem formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in 2015 at Panška reka, near Ljubljana, Slovenia (ca. 46°00’N, 14°40’E, 400 m a.s.l.) with a temperate climate. The research was a part of a long-term project, which involves different sites and tree species. We measured the widths of cambium and the formation of xylem growth rings with differentiating cells in postcambial (PC) and secondary wall formation (SW) phases, and mature cells (MT). The results for 2015 were compared with those for previous years (2009–2011) in the same species and site, and with the published data from wood formation studies in conifers from all over Europe. The latter were used in two-factor regression models which confirmed the effects of latitude and altitude on the critical dates of onset, end, and duration of xylem production. The models thus helped us to predict/reconstruct phenology of wood formation in conifers in Europe.